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中国岩画研究中心

Rock Art Research Association of China

 
 
 

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中国岩画研究中心始建于1992年,创始人为我国著名岩画专家陈兆复教授。中国岩画研究中心是国际岩画组织联合会的会员组织之一,主要从事中国境内岩画资料搜集整理及学术研究工作,也密切关注世界岩画研究事业的最新动态。中国岩画研究中心现任主任张亚莎教授是国际岩画组织联合会的中国代表,国际史前及原史科学协会会员。同时,也是《岩画研究》(澳大利亚)、《文学和艺术研究期刊》(美国)等国际学术期刊的评审人。张亚莎教授的主要学术研究领域为艺术史、藏族艺术和岩画。目前,中国岩画研究中心每年招收3名硕士研究生和1—2名博士研究生

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欧洲东南亚考古学家协会第14届国际会议论文摘要/Abstracts of the 14th International Conference of EurASEAA  

2012-07-30 14:57:16|  分类: 岩画会议/Confer |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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编者按:由都柏林大学考古学院主办的欧洲东南亚考古学家协会第14届国际会议将于201291821日在爱尔兰首都都柏林召开,此次会议设有东南亚岩画专场——“古老图像的新研究:东南亚岩画”。

Editor’s note: Organised and hosted by University College Dublin School of Archaeology, the 14th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists (EurASEAA) will be held in Dublin between 18 and 21 September, 2012. One session concerning the Southeast Asia’s rock art has been proposed --- New research on old images: the rock art of Southeast Asia.

 

 

The 14th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists

September 18-21, 2012, Dublin, Ireland

 

SESSION

New research on old images: the rock art of Southeast Asia

Organiser: Noel Hidalgo Tan (Australian National University)

Southeast Asia sits at the intersection of India, China and Australia - three regions with notable amounts of rock art, and it is thus surprising that so little is known of the rock art at the crossroads. In the last decade we have seen an increase in rock art research conducted throughout Southeast Asia, and it is readily apparent that this area of research is not particularly well understood. This session calls for presentation of new and recent research on the rock art from all parts of Southeast Asia, particularly in the discovery of new sites and in studies investigating sites located in more than one country.

 

PAPERS

Cultural resources management and community dimensions at Southeast Asian rock art sites

Rachel Hoerman (University of Hawai'i at Manoa)

Rock art sites lie at the nexus of academic and applied archaeology. Fixed in place, they exist as potential sources of archaeological information, while often playing roles in the social/economic activities of local communities. This paper reviews Southeast Asian rock art sites, comparing examples of site use, development and community utilisation from across the region. Southeast Asia-specific guidelines are proposed for site management, preservation and community use.

 

A study of Kulen Mountain rock art: initial field survey and mapping

Heng Than (APSARA Authority)

This paper will discuss the rock art on Kulen Mountain, based on research by members of the Living Angkor Road Project on the Anlong Thom: Cultural Village Development Project. Kulen Mountain has been previously known by scholars for the historic sites situated within the Angkor area.

 

Until recently, not much was known about the rock art of Southeast Asia but in the past few years various research programs in different countries have revealed the region to have a rich and varied rock art heritage. Some countries, such as Thailand, are known to have hundreds of sites, while others like Malaysia have a small number of sites but a broad range of different types of rock art of varying age. Other countries, including Cambodia, were previously believed to have little to no rock art but recent discoveries are proving otherwise.

 

In 2009, we found some rock painting sites near the base of the eastern end of Kulen Mountain. All the sites consist of paint on the sloping boulder and bedrock on a scree slope. There are red outline and solid paintings, solid orange paintings and line infill charcoal drawings. There also are instances of recent writing and names in white that could be classified as graffiti. The work was photographed, examined for dating potential and possible rock art style sequence, and all recently found sites were mapped. A few years before this discovery the only other example of local rock painting had been found by wildlife conservation workers at Kravanh Mountain, near the southern coast of Cambodia. Bas-relief rock carving on natural boulders and in a river bed is also known from two locations, Kbal Spean and Poeung Komnou, but they are associated with the greater Angkor Hindu art and monument complex.

 

Rock art of the central highlands of Borneo

Lindsay Lloyd-Smith (Sogang University)

The central highlands of Borneo are rich in rock art sites. There are incised and carved designs of human and animal figures, as well as seemingly abstract designs. Known to museum scholars since the early 1900s, no detailed recording of any of the rock sites has yet been carried out. Preliminary surveys of cultural sites within the remit of the Cultured Rainforest Project (2007-2011) revealed hitherto unknown sites, adding further complexity in the variety of styles, site locations, and their association with types of megalithic monuments. Many of the rock art sites are associated in local folklore with mythical ancestor culture heroes. This paper presents a summary of the different types of rock art so far surveyed, outlines preliminary observations on their distribution across the highlands, and lays out plans for future detailed study of Borneo’s impressive cultural heritage.

 

Coincidence or confluence? Rock art in the sacred sites of Mainland Southeast Asia

Noel Hidalgo Tan (Australian National University)

This research represents an on-going project looking at the prehistoric rock art sites in Mainland Southeast Asia across several borders. In many of these cases, the rock art sites often coexist with sacred shrines and temples of Buddhist and Hinduistic religions, as well as local religious practices. The reconfigured landscapes are still in use today, either in harmony with the pre-existing rock art, or indifference. Does this co- existence represent confluence or coincidence? I examine the co-existence of rock art with religious shrines in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos and discuss the various commonalities and differences among these sites. Based on their layered use over time and features in the landscapes, I suggest that these sites may always have been regarded as 'powerful' or 'spiritual' sites in one way or another.

 

Stone statue of Sake: a lone guardian of Bukit Beribit

Vida Pervaya Rusianti Kusmartono (Balai Arkeologi Banjarmasin)

Kalimantan is the largest island in the Indonesian Archipelago. Although research has been carried out by foreign and Indonesian scholars since the middle of the 19th century AD, Kalimantan still presents mysteries waiting to be unveiled. Many parts of Kalimantan have been seeing modern urban development, supported by massive natural resources and good information technology, although a greater part of Kalimantan is still impenetrable by water, land or air. The present investigation focuses on the stone statue of Sake, a 200x100 cm monolith made of limestone, which sits alone in the primary woods of Bukit Beribit on the northern slope of the Schwaner-Müller Mountain. The Ot Danum people called it Batu Tenavak or the tiger stone; however, the sculpture resembles a mix of amphibian-reptilian-like creatures decorated with geometric symbols, rather than portraying the number-one predator in the Indonesian archipelago. Amphibian or reptilian creatures are usually sculpted or carved independently in ancient Indonesian arts, since mythologically each connotes different yet somewhat complementary significance. Impressive icons such as the stone statue of Sake have not been found in other parts of Kalimantan or Indonesia; however, numerous earthen crocodile images were reported in the upstream region of Bahau, and discovered in Sarawak and Sabah. This paper discusses the characteristic of the stone statue of Sake and the significance of cultural development that occurred in the Schwaner-Müller region.

 

Metabolism, mythology, magic or metaphor: animals in the rock art of Thailand

Laurie Winch (University of Bristol)

A common feature of many rock art corpora is the inclusion of animals, both naturalistic and fantastical. For a long time it was assumed that “primitive” prehistoric minds were incapable of thoughts above the basal survival requirements of hunting and procreation, and therefore animals in the art were assumed to be actual or desired prey species. Whilst this theory still provides the foundation for the understanding of certain painting traditions, research in recent decades has increasingly shown rock art to be full of subtle nuances, mythological phenomena, multifaceted magic and potency, and metaphorical references to various aspects of society and culture. The aim of this paper is to introduce ongoing research on the specific social and environmental contexts of rock art in Thailand, alongside considerations gleaned from rock art research in other parts of the world, using this as a foundation for analysis of data gathered during fieldwork in 2011. My research seeks to examine the frequency, distribution, correlation and manner of faunal representations in the Thai rock art, and to use these considerations to establish whether metabolism, mythology, magic and/or metaphor are relevant to my data, and by extension help to understand why the rock art of Thailand was produced.

 

The available evidence suggests that the rock art of Thailand was created almost exclusively within the last 4000 years, and that the majority may have been significantly younger. The art consists primarily of human figures and wild animal species, although some domesticated animals, possible plant images, geometrics and boats have also been recorded. It is therefore my assumption that the rock art was produced primarily by communities who were predominantly hunter-gatherer-fishers, but who may have also practised a certain degree of mixed subsistence by cultivating some crops or even keeping small numbers of domestic animals.

 

Urrmarning (Red Lily Dreaming) – a case study for the application of non-destructive geochemical pXRF on rock art pigments

Christian Reepmeyer (Australian National University),

Daryl Wesley (Australian National University),

Tristen Jones (Australian National University)

This paper presents preliminary results from a recent pXRF (portable X-ray Fluorescence) study on the geochemical analysis of pigments at the Urrmarning (Red Lily Dreaming) rock art site, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Australia. Located directly adjacent to the eastern border of the Kakadu National Park, the site incorporates important depictions of early contact between Makassan traders, most likely of Sulawesi origin, in the Trepang Industry of the 1700s. Even earlier European contact with Timor- based Portuguese and later contact between European settlers of British decent in the 1800s is shown through images of trade ships and weaponry.

 

The project addresses two potential applications of pXRF techniques for archaeological research and conservation. First, the project is designed to develop practical strategies for conservation of rock art to assist indigenous rangers and traditional owners in monitoring disturbance to places of cultural significance. Second, the scientific research focus of the study is the experimental application of non-destructive pXRF technique to analyse in situ rock art pigments with the aim of defining possible sources of ochres utilised at sites. During two week fieldwork, 640 analyses of 32 motifs at four rock art sites were conducted showing good potential for the discrimination of different ochre varieties. Problems and limitations of the in situ application of this method, however, were encountered during fieldwork, and will be discussed in addition to the results presented.

 

Parameters constraining the relative chronology of Indian and Thai rock art: searching for a comparative methodology from the Orient

Ruman Banerjee (University of Bristol),

Alistair W.G. Pike (University of Bristol)

Indian rock art represents tremendous thematic, stylistic and cultural variability. In South Asia, particularly from Central India, more than two thousand prehistoric painted shelters have already been documented. Moreover, new rock art sites are being reported from the Mirzapur district of Central India. Similarly in Southeast Asia, Thailand exhibits vast numbers of painted rock-shelters, enriching the diversity of the archaeological record in the crossroads between India, China and Australia. After the first modern discovery of rock art in 1912 and 1924, several new rock art sites have been documented in the north-eastern Korat province of Thailand. The newly discovered painted rock-shelters of Mirzapur depict intricate technical ability and stylistic sophistication, and have yielded numerous microliths on the surface of the sites. On the contrary in Thailand the rock art sites of the Korat region under purview lack relative sophistication in stylistics, possess no cultural materials at the rock-shelter sites, and depict only anthropomorphs, cattle and geometric designs.

 

Apart from the subject matter or theme and stylistic sophistication, along with various types of superimposition, the presence of surface and buried cultural material helps to assign a relative chronology to the rock-shelter sites. This research employs a comparative approach using strict parameters to develop a set of methodologies to classify the rock art of the Mirzapur and Korat regions of South and Southeast Asia.

 

POSTER

The hidden paintings of Angkor Wat

Noel Hidalgo Tan (Australian National University)

Much attention has been paid to the spectacular bas-relief carvings of Angkor Wat, and less to the painted walls, hinted by trace amounts of pigments. This poster presents some paintings on the walls of Angkor Wat that are practically invisible to the naked eye, including remarkable depictions of boats, animals and buildings. These images were brought to light using D-stretch, a digital image enhancement software tool used to visualise faded images in rock art research. They were recorded in 2012 during a rock art survey in Siem Reap. Faint red markings were noted on the walls of Angkor Wat, often at the entrance chambers at each level of the pyramid structure. Some of the images that emerged were complex scenes that reveal a wealth of information about Cambodian life. The dating of these paintings is problematic, as there appears to be no iconography diagnostic of a certain time frame. Two major theories have been posited: that the paintings are vandalism left by pilgrims since the 16th century AD, after the traditional abandonment of Angkor, or that they were pre-form markings left for sculptors to carve in to bas-reliefs.

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