注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

中国岩画研究中心

Rock Art Research Association of China

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

中国岩画研究中心始建于1992年,创始人为我国著名岩画专家陈兆复教授。中国岩画研究中心是国际岩画组织联合会的会员组织之一,主要从事中国境内岩画资料搜集整理及学术研究工作,也密切关注世界岩画研究事业的最新动态。中国岩画研究中心现任主任张亚莎教授是国际岩画组织联合会的中国代表,国际史前及原史科学协会会员。同时,也是《岩画研究》(澳大利亚)、《文学和艺术研究期刊》(美国)等国际学术期刊的评审人。张亚莎教授的主要学术研究领域为艺术史、藏族艺术和岩画。目前,中国岩画研究中心每年招收3名硕士研究生和1—2名博士研究生

网易考拉推荐

2012 ARARA Conference Abstracts  

2012-05-22 17:50:39|  分类: 岩画会议/Confer |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Editor’s note: Co-hosted by the Utah Rock Art Research Association and the Dixie Archaeological Society, the 39th Annual Conference of the American Rock Art Research Association (ARARA) will be held over this Memorial Day Weekend, May 25–28, 2012, in St. George, where Southwestern Utah has archaic, Basketmaker, Fremont, formative Ancestral Puebloan, and Paiute rock art, with its rock art reflecting a unique geology. With a view to having a timely and clearer picture of the forthcoming conference, the conference abstracts are presented below alphabetically by their authors.

 

 

 

2012 ARARA Conference Abstracts

 

 

 

Julia Altman (University of Idaho)

Warriors in Stone: A Study of the Shield Bearing Warrior Motif in Idaho Rock Art

Shield bearers have been illustrated and reported for many years as figures holding round shields in rock art throughout western North America. The distribution of shield warrior figures in Idaho is examined and its stylistic relationship to shield bearers in the adjacent Great Plains is established. Using a combination of field work, ethnographic research and searches of State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) records, shield bearing warrior locations throughout Idaho were located, mapped and analyzed quantitatively, contextually and stylistically. (Paper)

 

Amanda Castenada, Charles Koenig, Grant Stauffer, Carolyn Boyd, Karen Steelman, Jon Russ, and Marvin W. Rowe (Texas A&M University and Conservation Laboratory of the Museum of New Mexico)

Portable X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Rock Art Pigments in the Lower Pecos River Region

Pictograph pigments from the Lower Pecos River, Texas were analyzed at 10 rock shelters. Red paintings from reddish-brown to dark purple are always iron-based. Hyman and Rowe (1997) found the only black pictograph in the region without manganese pigments until now. The present work found manganese was used as pigments in all Pecos River Style black pictographs. However, we found apparent charcoal in small paintings that are difficult to assign to the three accepted styles: Pecos River, Red Linear and Red Monochrome. (Paper)

 

Don D. Christensen (Western Rock Art Research)

A Preliminary Assessment of Rock Art in Washington County, Utah

Western Rock Art Research documented 49 prehistoric rock art sites in some of the newly designated wilderness areas in Washington County, Utah for the Bureau of Land Management. The St. George region is at the nexus of three major physiographic regions: the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau. As such, the rock art reflects a number of different influences across a broad temporal spectrum within a diverse physical setting. The environmental context, the cultural associations and the stylistic affiliations of the sites will be described based on the work completed to date. (Paper)

 

Livio Dobrez and Patricia Dobrez (Australian National University)

Canonical Form and the Identification of Rock Art Figures

Is there a particular perceptual modality, i.e. a particular way of seeing rock art figures (anthropomorphs and zoomorphs) which simply involves basic recognition and is distinguishable from the recognition of these same figures in other contexts, e.g. scenes? Such a modality would depend on elements of a figure and of perception which make preliminary identification easy and rapid, for example visual “invariants” (Gibson), “typical contours” (Deregowski), etc. This paper critically reviews the literature on the subject of figure recognition, taking the discussion in a new direction, and one which includes neurophysiological considerations. (Paper)

 

Eve Ewing

Birds of Rain and Other Avian Forms in Great Mural Art of Baja California

Birds have long played important symbolic roles in the beliefs of native cultures. This presentation will focus on some examples from the rock art that appear to portray birds as bringers of rain, birds as messengers and birds as transformation motifs. (Paper)

 

Leanna Flaherty (California State University, Chico)

The “Costliness” of Petroglyph Manufacture: An Experiment Conducted to Determine the Energy Expenditure of Rock Art Production and an Evaluation of its Potential as a “Signal”

This paper explores the energetics associated with petroglyph manufacture to address the question of whether some rock art imagery can be understood as evidence of prehistoric peoples participating in costly signaling or “show-off” behavior. One condition of Costly Signaling Theory is that signaling must have some sort of disadvantage in order to maintain its “honesty”. Drawing on the basic principles of exercise physiology, an experiment was conducted using open-circuit indirect calorimetry to determine the energetic expenditure of rock art production, the results of which are compared to other activities in order to evaluate its potential as a costly signal. (Paper)

 

Steve Freers (Independent Researcher)

Southern California Style—It’s Elemental

There are three identified painted rock art styles in southern California, each with its own set of defining characteristics and geographic distribution. The extent of the La Rumorosa Style agrees strongly with the Kumeyaay cultural map. However, the geographic distribution of the San Luis Rey and Rancho Bernardo Styles spans several cultural groups. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the idiosyncratic variances within these rock art styles that mirror conventional assumptions regarding ethnographic divisions. (Paper)

 

Kathy Hamlet and Carolynne Merrell (Archaeographics)

Cowboys with Time on their Hands

Cattle and sheep ranching dominated much of southern Idaho from 1866 to the mid-1900s. With it came the cowboy, who tended cattle on land that was previously home to tribes of Shoshone, Bannock, and Paiute Indians. The cowboys left their marks by incising brands and other art on boulders and rocks at the same location as prehistoric rock art. The fact that these engravings did not appear as graffiti over the obvious Native American rock art suggests a respect for the earlier art while at the same time contributing cowboy related images to the landscape. (Report)

 

Don Hann (Malheur National Forest)

Searching for the Story in Picture Gorge, Eastern Oregon

Picture Gorge in eastern Oregon contains one of the largest concentrations of pictographs in the state. Site 35GR12 stands out in the number and complexity of designs. There are several paired images related to distinctive geologic features. Although in clear association with each other, the images do not show the formal attributes to be identified as a scene or a true narrative. Formal and informed analysis of the images suggests they still tell a story, an implied narrative. By weaving together strands of evidence from Columbia Plateau history, ethnography, archaeology and mythology the broad outline of a story is presented. (Paper)

 

Jon Harman (DStretch)

Abstract Pictograph Sites near Mission San Borja, Baja California

Mission San Borja lies at the southern limit of what Ritter and Ewing have called the Northern Abstract rock art zone in Baja California. This paper documents three pictograph sites: Las Tinajitas and two sites near Rancho Viejo San Gregorio. All are within 10km of San Borja. Las Tinajitas has been mentioned in the literature. The other two sites have not been reported previously. Many of the paintings at these sites are faded and some are very difficult to see. DStretch enhancement technology is used to help visualize the paintings at these sites. (Paper)

 

Ken Hedges (Independent Researcher)

Red Rock Canyon: Investigating the Sinagua Connection in Lower Gila Rock Art

Red Rock Canyon is a unique petroglyph site located in a small sandstone canyon a short distance west of the Gila River between Gillespie Dam and Gila Bend in southwestern Arizona. Design elements form a distinctive set unlike those in surrounding rock art of the Hohokam Gila Petroglyph style or the Patayan Sears Point style. Certain historic motifs suggest a late Patayan connection, but the site in general resembles rock art from the Sinagua area to the north, and may provide explanations for unusual aspects of certain lower Gila sites. (Paper)

 

Janine Hernbrode (Volunteer, Coronado National Forest and Arizona Site Stewards)

Gender in Hohokam Imagery and Landscape: Sutherland Wash Rock Art District, Coronado National Forest, Arizona

Hohokam anthropomorphs in Tucson area rock art have been characterized as having little detail and rare indications of female gender. New information from 28 sites in the Sutherland Wash Rock Art District and the completion of comprehensive recording has given us an opportunity to compare 419 anthropomorphs, of which 134 (32%) were clearly gendered in approximately equal numbers, either male or female. Apparent attempts to illustrate “family” and “birthing” also are pictured repeatedly. In addition, the site includes a granitic landscape with natural yoni and phallus formations and boulders with a large number of cupules. (Paper)

 

Jennifer Huang (Bureau of Reclamation), Robert Mark, Evelyn Billo, and Jannie Loubser

Experimentation with iPad 2 Technology in Petroglyph Documentation at the Watson Site, Southeastern Oregon

In 2011, the Bureau of Reclamation contracted with Stratum Unlimited and Rupestrian CyberServices to complete documentation of an extensive petroglyph site in southeastern Oregon. Recording of this site began in 2002, but only half was completed because of its immense area and density. The contract specifies the use of iPad 2 technology in the recording process to test its usefulness in the field. This paper outlines the history of recording techniques at this site, the experiences using iPad 2 units, and the plan to study the resulting data to determine the full significance of this enormous Great Basin site. (Paper)

 

Boma Johnson (Bureau of Land Managment, Arizona; Retired)

Rock Art of the St. George Basin, SW Utah: An Overview

This presentation has two purposes. First will be a quick visual visit to some of the more interesting rock art sites in the St. George Basin. Secondly will be a short examination of a few outstanding story/song panels created and used by the Virgin Anasazi and Paiute as initiation or teaching stations. These panels express core concepts and beliefs as held by southwest Utah and other Southwestern tribal peoples, and as shared with the author over the years. (Paper)

 

James D. Keyser, Livio Dobrez, Don Hann, and David A. Kaiser (Indigenous Cultures Preservation Society)

When is a Picture a Narrative? Interpreting Different Types of Rock Art

The concept of narrative in rock art is widely used, even though often poorly defined. The result is that single images, where the “story” lies solely with the observer are equated with complex scenes, involving multiple actors engaged with each other and with inanimate objects by complex “story-telling” conventions. In between these opposites are rock art compositions whose story is suggested by factors evident both in the art and in the site setting. We describe and define three expressions of narrativity—explicit, implied, and inferred—that rock art scholars can use to differentiate these three types of rock art. (Paper)

 

David Lee (Western Rock Art Research)

A Decade of Documentation: Current Status of the Owens Valley Rock Art Project

The “Deepest Valley” in America is located between two 14,000 foot mountain ranges in California, and has been home to Native Americans for over 10,000 years. The archaeological resources here are rich and varied; from village sites to rock art sites ranging from one to a thousand elements. Western Rock Art Research has been collaborating with the Bureau of Land Management since 2000 to document these resources as a first step towards effective management, and in an effort to understand these enigmatic images. The status of the project will be presented along with some of the trends that are emerging. (Report)

 

Janet Lever-Wood and Ann Phillips (Bureau of Land Management)

Rock Art Recording at Upper Sand Island, Utah

A summary of the rock art recording project at Upper Sand Island, Bluff, Utah will be presented. New photographic technology, a remarkable crew of volunteers, and excellence in cooperative documentation will be emphasized. The rock art at this site ranges from paleolithic images to proto-historic narratives. (Report)

 

Lawrence Loendorf (Sacred Sites Research)

The Horned Headgear Site, Montana

Horned Headgear, 24ML0508, is located on the Musselshell River in central Montana. The site is relatively small with six panels, but two of these exhibit an important story about a battle between an Assiniboine warrior and a Crow warrior. The site is significant for the quality of the imagery but more importantly it is an example of a rock art site that can be assigned to specific tribal groups. Archaeologists try to establish ethnicity for past remains and the Horned Headgear site is an example of how researchers can use rock art to identify tribal affiliation. (Paper)

 

Chris R. Loendorf and Lawrence L. Loendorf (Gila River Indian Community, Sacred Sites Research)

Analyzing Red Pictographs with Portable X-Ray Fluorescence

Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) is one of the few analytical techniques that allows in situ and non-destructive assessment of pigments used in pictographs. Previous research with this technique has successfully identified minerals in rock paintings of different colors including red (iron) and green (chromium). In our recent PXRF analysis of paintings at Picture Cave, Texas, we were also able to establish that at least two different batches of paint were used at the site. This compositional variation allows previously unavailable insight into the associations among different figures at the site. (Paper)

 

Farrel W. Lytle (The EXAFS Company)

Determining Age of Petroglyphs by XRF Chemical Analysis: Dated Petroglyph Frequency Tracks Climate Eras

Petroglyph age was measured by XRF chemical analysis. Age calibration based upon DV manganese concentration (corrected for base rock content and slope) vs. the cosmogenic-isotope-dated age. Range and 1 sigma accuracy were XRF vs. Age from 1,000 to 40,000 +/- 25% years BP. Accuracy on basalt, tuff and sandstone agreed with known ages. Glyph ages agreed with subject archaeological context, e. g. bow and arrow vs. atlatl. Dated glyph frequency peaks and valleys from extended sites correlated with wet and dry climate eras. Demonstrated for Anasazi Ridge and Little Creek. (Poster)

 

Scott McDonald (McDonald Geologic)

Multiple Use Paleoarchaic Sacred Sites, Pancake Range, East Central Nevada

Five spaced-stone geoglyphs are found in three sites in the Pancake Range of Nevada: The Circle Site, a pink volcanic boulder surrounded by stones. The Snake Site, a large snake-human conflation figure with two short entopic lines nearby. And the Hero Site: a figure of a human or star constellation. These sites may have had disparate and multiple uses. Puberty initiation, hunting magic, shamanic initiation and hero myth may have united these nearby sites in a pilgrimage journey of religious and political significance. (Report)

 

Carolynne Merrell (Archaeographics)

Exploring the Cave Valley Style, Utah

Cave Valley is a distinct style of rock art thought to have had its genesis in a cave located in Zion National Park. It is best described as a humanoid figure constructed from six interconnected triangles. Variations on this theme include head adornments, more naturalistic appendages, and other body decoration. Little is known about the distribution of this style element or its possible cultural affiliation. Recent research leads to a better understanding of this design element, its variations, cultural affiliation and geographic distribution. (Paper)

 

Elanie Moore (Citrus College)

At Cueva Pintada, Baja California Sur, the Proof is in the Pole

This paper revisits the mystery of painting the upper images, some as high as 35 feet above the floor of this ancient cave, La Pintada, found in the Sierra de San Francisco, B.C.S., Mexico. After experimenting with a variety of natural poles that grow in the canyons nearby, trying other researchers’ ideas, and taking into account the physical properties of painting with a ‘brush’, Carrizo Phragmites is the most likely instrument used for mural production. (Paper)

 

Ruth Musser-Lopez (Archaeological Heritage Association, River Branch)

The Mountain North of Las Vegas: Rock Art Style Distribution on the Periphery of the Sheep Range

Five rock art sites, ranging widely in motif style, potential function, and age are also widely dispersed physically along the periphery of the Sheep Range north of Las Vegas. A model for distinguishing the motifs of Uto-Aztecan speakers from motifs likely made by Hokan speakers is utilized. A tentative age range is assigned employing the strategy proposed by Gilreath for associating Gold Butte stylistic motifs with age. Images are also compared against the absolute chronological framework for six motifs established for Coso Range rock art by Rogers (2010). (Paper)

 

V. Garth Norman (ARCON Inc.)

Parowan Gap Narrows Rock Writing as History: Interpretation in Archaeological District Contexts

The Parowan Gap, Utah, archaeological project (1993 to 2007) took the rich Gap rock art archive research to new levels for constructing Fremont history with a multi-disciplinary research design. Tasks including site survey, excavation, rock art analysis, ethnology, archaeoastronomy survey, and site comparisons, maximized interpretive data. Research results identified a massive calendar observatory with over 25 horizon/sun watch stations, corresponding petroglyph shadow marks, and extensive petroglyph calendar numeral records, all centered on the 260-day calendar. Discovery of distant contacts with turquoise trade introduced Mesoamerican Toltec culture that moved Parowan Fremont village life on the path toward higher civilization. (Paper and Poster)

 

Jon Picciuolo

Pictographs at Swordfish Cave (CA-SBA-503) Suggestive of Human-Swordfish Shamanistic Transformation

Two small pictographs at Vandenberg Air Force Base’s Swordfish Cave seem to display a mixture of human and swordfish characteristics, possibly suggesting shamanistic transformation. The poster presents the two pictographs and the site’s famous swordfish, pointing out human and swordfish characteristics of the two featured pictographs. A very brief discussion of the swordfish’s cultural significance to the Chumash is included. No assertion is made that the two pictographs indeed represent shamanistic transformation; however, their apparent mixture of human and swordfish characteristics is intriguing. (Poster)

 

Alexander K. Rogers (Maturango Museum)

Early Reports on the Coso Petroglyphs of Southern Inyo County, California.

The Maturango Museum, in Ridgecrest, California, holds in its files what appears to be the earliest academic report on the Coso petroglyphs. The report was prepared for the US Navy in 1946 by Virginia Hitchcock, a student of Robert Heizer at the University of California. The report is type-written, in memorandum format, and includes Polaroid photographs of the rock art. In addition, the Museum recently received photographs and a typewritten narrative from a visit to Lower Renegade Canyon in 1923 by a man named Herb Summers. This paper will present the photographs and briefly summarize these two reports. (Report)

 

Bruce Ross

Traveling to Other Worlds: Visitation to the Heavens as Transpersonal Experience in Rock Art

Relying on a model of entoptic behavior, the paper examines the transpersonal experience of traveling to the “heavens” as expressed in world rock art. The most common direction of a shaman’s passage to the other worlds is to the “upper” one. Representations of this passage are sometimes representational (a human figure connected by a line to an object in the sky) but more often metaphoric expression (lines arched around a human figure’s head). Examples are presented from worldwide rock art, areas (including the “Wedding Rocks” of coastal Washington and several sites in Morocco). (Paper)

 

John A. Ruskamp (Epigraphic Research, AAS-Little Colorado Chapter)

Asiatic Echoes: The Identification of Chinese Pictograms in North American Rock Writing

This paper introduces pictorial and written evidence that in pre-Columbian times, multiple intellectual exchanges took place between Asiatic and North American populations. Using a novel integration of the legal construct of substantial similarity with the comparative statistical tool of Jaccard’s Index of Similarity, the Chinese origin of 24 North American petroglyphs is established. Analytical comparative statistics are provided for the similarities shared by studying glyph linestrokes with corresponding features of equally ancient and complex Chinese script pictograms. Here is epigraphic proof that Asiatic explorers interacted positively with Native North American people long before any European exploration of the continent. (Paper)

 

Geri Schrab (Rock Art in Watercolors)

Addressing the Sacred: An Artistic Exploration of Rock Art

Rock art sites are often referred to as sacred. What exactly makes a site sacred? Going beyond transits or tape measures into a human region that can only be measured by the beat of the heart, artistic exploration shifts the sacred from intellectual concept to modern practice. This presentation explores that mystery veil through a personal and expressive paint on paper approach to rock art sites in the upper Midwest, the Boundary Waters of northern Minnesota and greater Lake Superior region. (Report)

 

Scott Seibel

New Rock Art Discoveries on Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Historical Park

As part of the ongoing Chaco Canyon Rock Art Reassessment Project, detailed rock-art site recording was done on Fajada Butte in the Spring and Fall of 2011. Previously unknown rock-art galleries were discovered, including panels found in an area inaccessible without technical mountaineering assistance. This presentation describes the new discoveries and describes the technical challenges in recording these difficult-to-reach areas. (Paper)

 

Karen L. Steelman, Lennon N. Bates, and Carolyn E. Boyd (University of Central Arkansas)

Radiocarbon Dating a Rock Painting from Black Cave, Texas

A Pecos River Style image from Black Cave (41VV76) was radiocarbon dated using plasma oxidation and accelerator mass spectrometry. The date was obtained from a paint sample from an image of a black deer impaled by a red spear. We obtained an age of 1465 ± 40 years BP. Although many radiocarbon dates have been obtained for rock art in the Lower Pecos River Region of southwest Texas, detailed stylistic information for these dates is unknown. This younger result for the Pecos River Style suggests that additional dating studies are needed. (Paper)

 

Michael Terlep (Northern Arizona University/ Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument)

A Multifaceted Analysis of Cup and Channel Petroglyphs from the Arizona Strip

This paper examines the spatial distribution and stylistic variability of cup and channel petroglyphs from the Arizona Strip. The age, origin, and function of these enigmatic petroglyphs have fascinated archaeologists for decades. The petroglyph size, up to 2 m long, and placement at prominent points contributes to the intrigue of cup and channel glyphs. Previous hypotheses for the age and function of the petroglyphs include prehistoric navigational markers to water sources, solstice markers, and historic tar burners. Using geographical information systems and archaeological and landscape methods I argue the petroglyphs are prehistoric water channels dating to the early/mid Formative period. (Paper)

 

Elizabeth (Beth) Velliky (Simon Fraser University)

Rock Paintings of Squamish Valley: An Analysis of Pigments and Ochre Sources using Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

There are two known sources of red ochre in the Squamish Valley, B.C., which were likely utilized in the creation of numerous pictographs in the area. The aim of this project is to geochemically analyze the sources in Squamish and other sources from within and outside British Columbia, and to analyze the pigments in the Squamish rock paintings using Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (PXRF). The results of this research will show if PXRF can confirm the provenance postulated for ochres, and if it is possible to attribute mineral pigments used in rock paintings to their origins using this methodology. (Paper)

 

Steven J. Waller (Rock Art Acoustics)

Illusions of the Supernatural: Archaeological Remnants of Pre-Scientific Paradigms Attempting to Explain Ambiguous Audio / Visual Phenomena in the Landscape

Pre-scientific peoples did not possess accurate theoretical models of complex natural phenomena. E.g., sound wave reflection gives the illusion of a virtual source behind the reflecting surface, and was modeled as answers emanating from non-corporeal beings dwelling within the rocks, as attested by ancient myths of echo spirits. Audio measurements reveal that cave art was often placed at locations with particularly intense reverberation that mimics thunder. A wide variety of other illusions can originate from ambiguous natural phenomena (light/shadow interactions, etc.). In the absence of scientific knowledge these inexplicable phenomena were considered supernatural, evoking spiritual responses in the landscape. (Paper)

 

Bill Whitehead

Why We Will Never Be Able to Interpret Rock Art or Anything Else For That Matter, Part 3

Part 3 implies a part 2, which may or may not exist. This will be a continuation of last year’s paper, musing on rock art interpretation, including a plea for assistance interpreting some modern rock art. (Paper)

  评论这张
 
阅读(357)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017