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中国岩画研究中心

Rock Art Research Association of China

 
 
 

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中国岩画研究中心始建于1992年,创始人为我国著名岩画专家陈兆复教授。中国岩画研究中心是国际岩画组织联合会的会员组织之一,主要从事中国境内岩画资料搜集整理及学术研究工作,也密切关注世界岩画研究事业的最新动态。中国岩画研究中心现任主任张亚莎教授是国际岩画组织联合会的中国代表,国际史前及原史科学协会会员。同时,也是《岩画研究》(澳大利亚)、《文学和艺术研究期刊》(美国)等国际学术期刊的评审人。张亚莎教授的主要学术研究领域为艺术史、藏族艺术和岩画。目前,中国岩画研究中心每年招收3名硕士研究生和1—2名博士研究生

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2013年国岩联大会专场研讨/2013 IFRAO Sessions  

2012-05-19 16:58:54|  分类: 国岩联大会/IFRA |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2013 IFRAO Sessions

 
The following sessions have been approved by the Program Committee. If you would like to present your research in one of these sessions, please send an abstract of your presentation (maximum 100-150 words) in one of the congress languages (English or Spanish) to the chairpersons via email. They may accept or refuse your proposal based on the characteristics and limitations of their session. If your research does not fit within one of the following sessions, please submit your abstract as an independent presentation. Information on how to submit your abstract independent of a session can be found under the Call for Papers heading. 

 

No.

Title

Chairs

Abstract

1

Symbols, Myths, and Cosmology: Archaeological Material and Anthropological Meanings

Dario Seglie
CeSMAP, Pinerolo - Polytechnic of Torino, Italy
dario.seglie@alice.it

 

Mike Singleton
University of Louvain, Belgium
singleton@demo.ucl.ac.be

 

Herman Bender
Hanwakan Center for Prehistoric Astronomy, Cosmology and Cultural Landscape Studies, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, USA
ashco@charter.net

 

Enrico Comba
University of Torino, Torino, Italy
enrico.comba@unito.it

The Symposium seeks to occasion new ideas and innovative research, to afford fresh theories and bold hypothesis together with unpublished information and recent discoveries relative to the study of Rock Art in general and in particular to the philosophies and practices it implies. The Symposium thus provides an opportunity to discuss the roles played by Iconography and Myth in archaeological times thanks, in part, to the light which can be shed thereon by insights emerging from the anthropological study of peoples whose material life styles and assimilated mentalities can be plausibly paralleled to those of our prehistoric forebears.

 

There is no third way beyond conscious or unconscious ethnocentrism. It must consequently be recognized that anthropology and archaeology with their respective categorizations of empirical reality (amongst which “Art” and “Prehistory”, “Ritual” and “Myth”) are pure products of recent Western history. This recognition, rendered creative as well as critical, could lead, far beyond the usual interdisciplinary syncretism, to radically new hermeneutical systems able to attribute less ambiguous meaning to the very terms under discussion such as “artistic production”, “primitive religion” and “hunter-gatherers”. In particular, such issues as the following will be debated:

? problems emerging with regards the archaeological and anthropological documentation of art sites, with special reference to symbolic systems and ritual practices;

? the correlations, synchronic and diachronic, between palaeo-ethnocultural areas at different periods and in various places;

? the iconography found in Rock Art as a reflection of world-views and cosmologies of the past;

? ceremonial aspects and underlying meanings of the material; the possible roles and function of Rock Art in keeping with eco-social-cultural changes;

? data from sites that are still in use, insofar as they can be related to Rock Art sites and to their meanings for contemporary native peoples.

2

Archaeology and the Science of Rock Art

Robert G. Bednarik
Convener of IFRAO, robertbednarik@hotmail.com

 

Professor Roy Querejazu Lewis
IFRAO Representative of AEARC
aearcb@gmail.com

The scientific study of rock art straddles many disciplines, among them forensic science, semiotics, neurosciences, cognitive sciences, ethnography, art history, various sub-disciplines of geology, conservation science, anthropology and archaeology. They address a great variety of aspects of rock art by a multitude of methods, some of which are testable and some of which are not. In its involvement with rock art, archaeology has traditionally focused on interpretation and recording, often recording by interpreting, and on endeavours to integrate rock art into archaeological narratives and chronologies. Minimum dating of rock art by archaeological excavation has only been possible in about twenty cases globally since the late 19th century, and direct dating of rock art continues to be experimental and difficult. Therefore the age of rock art remains unknown in nearly all cases, and most of it cannot be plausibly integrated in chronological constructs.

 

Papers are invited on any topic addressing the nexus between archaeology and the scientific approaches to rock art. They may include such subjects as:

? To what extent should archaeological samples be expected to be representative of an entity (culture, people, behaviour pattern, etc.)?

? Uniformitarian reasoning in archaeology and rock art studies

? How do archaeologists create stylistic chronologies?

? The interpretation or meaning of rock art

? Archaeology and the taphonomy of rock art

? The imposition of etic taxonomies on rock art

? Treating rock art as pictures

? Alternative classification systems of rock art

? Forensics versus archaeology

? Semiotics of rock art

? Is the destruction of rock art sites by archaeologists acceptable?

? Ethics in archaeological excavations in rock art sites.

? The pertinence of relative rock art dating through archaeological excavations.

? Or any other subject relevant to examining the usefulness of archaeology to the science of rock art.

Prospective presenters are invited to provide paper titles and abstracts of about 100 words to one of the session chairs by May 31, 2012.

3

Paleoindian and Archaic Rock Art in the Americas

Matthias Strecker
Bolivian Rock Art Research Society SIARB
siarb@acelerate.com  or strecker.siarb@gmail.com

 

William Breen Murray
ARARA, USA

wbmurray1@yahoo.com

In the last decade, Paleoindian and Archaic (pre-ceramic) rock art produced by hunter-gatherers has been defined for numerous sites in the Americas. Significant results were presented at some academic meetings, such as the 2010 IFRAO Congress in France.

 

In this session we wish to discuss the iconography (of non-iconic and representational art), techniques and archaeological context of the earliest phases of rock art production in each part of the Americas in order to generate a comparative perspective on the relative antiquity of New World rock art traditions. This includes issues dealing with dating and chronology as well as the relation of rock art to changing landscapes and environmental conditions.

 

The session will be divided into sub-sections organized geographically. Bilingual translation service has been requested by the session organizers to facilitate discussion.

4

Rock Art in Asia and Pacific Region

Prof. Giriraj Kumar
Agra, India
girirajrasi.india@gmail.com

 

Robert G. Bednarik
Melbourne, Australia
robertbednarik@hotmail.com

Glimpses of rock art of Asia and Pacific region were presented for the first time in the First AURA Congress, Darwin in Australia in 1988. The proceedings were published as a section in the volume on Rock art of the Old World in 1993. Since then a lot of scientific work on rock art of this vast region has been undertaken. The region has also produced Pleistocene art, which in India extends back to the Lower Paleolithic, as established by the EIP Project. Most of the Pleistocene art is non-iconic which precedes iconic art, as is the case in the other continents also. In spite of the unique regional characters the rock art of Asia-Pacific also bears universal features. The symposium papers will be categorized into two broad groups:

I. The art of hunter-foragers: A. Non-iconic art preceding the iconic art, and B. Iconic art and associated non-iconic art; and

 II. The art of early pastoral people.

This symposium intends to present a comprehensive picture of the recent developments in rock art research in different parts of Asia and the western Pacific region for understanding the cognitive and technological development and also the perception of reality by its authors in different periods of human history, and to understand its place in the rock art of the world.

 

Research papers are invited on any aspect of the documentation and scientific study (comprising testable propositions) dealing with the above-mentioned aspects of rock art heritage as well as its protection and popularization.

 

The official languages of the Congress will be English and Spanish. However, in all cases it will be necessary to present an English abstract. The abstracts of papers should not be more than 200 words and the deadline to receive them is May 31, 2012. The deadline to receive the complete papers for pre-congress publication is October 31, 2012. Prospective presenters will receive an acceptance letter only after the clearance from the Registrar of the Congress about the deposit of the required fees.

5

Gender and Sexual Dynamics in Rock Art

Mary A. Gorden
independent researcher
magorden@msn.com

 

Alan P. Gold, Ph.D.
AECOM
alan.gold@aecom.com

Can rock art studies transcend the limitations of shamanic and hunting models? Exploring gender diversity, sexuality, and reproduction in prehistoric cultures challenges past assumptions. Gender and sexual constructs are dynamic through time and space. Male and female sex roles are culturally defined and complex constructs relating to diverse gender concepts and sexuality patterns that varied throughout the world.

 

To develop persuasive models, several considerations are relevant.  These include: 1) Examination of the methods used to infer past meanings using symbolic forms; 2) Consideration of the use of gendered images and how they may help to interpret function and context including implications for associations with prehistoric social organization and gender-based activities; 3) Identification of cross-cultural similarities in gender roles, 4) Comparison of the symbolic analogies that are applied from one culture to another; 5) Relating material evidence to social behavior through the examination of archaeological context with associated features and artifacts; and 6) Examination of the placement of rock art in the landscape may provide clues via “gendered spatial analysis” that would include consideration of public, ritual, and economic spaces.

 

The goal of this symposium is to identify and analyze visual representations used to represent and define gender roles, reproduction, and sexuality.

6

Great Mural Traditions of the American Southwest

James D. Farmer
Virginia Commonwealth University
jfarmer@vcu.edu

 

Reinaldo Morales Jr.
University of Central Arkansas
rmorales@uca.edu  

This session explores several specific pictographic styles found across the Greater American Southwest (Lower Pecos River in Texas, Colorado Plateau in Utah, Grand Canyon Esplanade in Arizona, and Baja California). These styles are distinguished as one of the earliest great North American painted mural traditions, and constitute one of the greatest prehistoric rock art traditions worldwide, comparable to those of paleolithic Europe, Africa and Australia. These styles most likely date to the Middle to Late Archaic periods (4000 B.C.–A.D. 500). Elaborately stylized figures, sophisticated polychrome compositions, and simultaneous monumentality and miniaturism characterize the imagery, and provide the aesthetic affect that activates the various iconographic programs in each region. Yet only in the last 40 years have these styles begun to be subjected to more specific artistic and art historical interpretations.

 

Early historic interpretations of this imagery focused on two primary issues: dating and working chronologies, and basic identification of recognizable themes and subjects. The latter approach has long been influenced by ideas relating to shamanic practices and rituals, such as the otherworldly, transformative or supernatural appearance of the figures, or interactions between anthropomorphs, zoomorphs and plant forms. While these approaches remain valid, more recent scholarship and research has shifted to questions spanning the range between philosophical discourse regarding their function as actual works of "art", to more art historical and object-specific issues focusing on form, style and technique, dating, iconographic analysis (as opposed to the mere identification of recognizable subjects), and broader cultural context, as well as purely art historical issues of spatial construction/perception, composition, naturalism vs. abstraction, etc.

 

This session investigates the concept of rock art traditions, specifically, the methodologies used to discern cultural connections across space and time. An underlying premise is that distantly related yet similar styles reflect various models of social and cultural interaction, as specifically reflected in the mural traditions considered herein.

7

Let Us Join Hands: The Most Common Representational Rock-art Symbol in the World

Jane Kolber
jkolber@theriver.com

 

Hipolito Collado Giraldo
hipolitocollado@gmail.com

Hands are common symbols for humanity. In everyday life we see our hands more often than anything else. Creators of rock-art throughout the world had a desire or need to produce this image both by painting and carving, using multiple techniques, in various landscapes. Usually sizes are realistic. Hands can be singular or in groups of hundreds and occasionally have varying numbers of fingers. They can represent an individual or the masses, a sign or a signal, creation or destruction. A hand could be a deity, a whole body, power, silence, work, worship. What are the similarities and differences of the rock-art Hands throughout the world? How many interpretations can be gleaned from this image that a child traces as soon as it is able? What can we learn from them and how can we protect them?

 

Las manos son símbolos habituales para el ser humano.  En nuestra vida diaria lo podemos apreciar con mayor frecuencia que cualquier otra representación simbólica.  En este sentido,  los creadores de arte rupestre en todo el mundo tuvieron el deseo o la necesidad de representar esta imagen, tanto pintada como grabada, utilizando múltiples técnicas, en contextos muy diversos tanto al interior como al aire libre.  Por lo general, los tama?os son realistas, aparecen de forma individual o en grupos grandes y con diferente número de dedos.  A través de ellas se pueden representar al individuo o a la colectividad, mostrar un signo, la creación o la destrucción.  Una mano puede representar una deidad, un cuerpo, el poder, el silencio, el trabajo, o la adoración religiosa.  ?Cuáles son las semejanzas o diferencias entre las manos del arte rupestre representadas alrededor el mundo?  ?Cuántas interpretaciones diferentes podemos dar a esta imagen que un ni?o puede realizar sin problema desde que tiene capacidad técnica?  ?Qué podemos aprender de ella y como podemos protegerlas?

8

The Dynamic Duo of Chaco Rock Art: Papers in Honor of Jane Kolber and Donna Yoder

Dr. Rex Weeks, Jr.
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville
wrweeks@uark.edu

 

Jennifer Huang, MA, RPA

Bureau of Reclamation
jhuang@usbr.gov

The very mention of rock art recording in Chaco Canyon brings to mind the dedication of two remarkable people – Jane Kolber and Donna Yoder. For 15 years they have led scores of volunteers in improving and expanding upon the Chaco documentation work that began with their involvement in the New Mexico Archaeological Society's rock art recording field school almost 40 years ago. The Chaco Rock Art Reassessment Project, headed by Jane and Donna, revived the prospect in 1996. It is an ambitious effort, to say the least. Through their work, Chaco is revealing that the petroglyphs and pictographs placed upon those cliff faces and boulders are of greater quantity (and in more elusive places) than ever could have been imagined when they began this endeavor. The Chaco Culture National Historical Park—a UNESCO World Heritage site and National Park Service gem—may contain the densest concentration of rock art in North America.  Is this surprising given the significance of this center place to the Ancestral Puebloan and Navajo peoples, spanning in time from remote antiquity to present day?  While there appears to be no end in sight for the recording work in the park, they diligently continue. Jane and Donna’s lifetime labor of love inspires the next generation of tenacious rock art recorders in Chaco Canyon, who must brave searing heat, frigid winds, blinding sand storms, seemingly inaccessible heights, or come whatever may in pursuit of rock art conservation. The commitment of these two women to oversee complete documentation of Chaco’s rock art assemblage provides invaluable data to rock art researchers who seek to better understand this imagery and rectify its absence in most studies of Chaco Canyon to this day. This session presents papers in tribute to Chaco's Dynamic Duo—Jane Kolber and Donna Yoder.

9

Student Session

Sponsored by the ARARA Education Committee

Carolynne Merrell
gamerrell@att.net

This session is open to graduate students (not including post doctoral students) who are interested in presenting a paper in English. In order to give students the widest berth possible, subjects for the papers are open to any rock art research topic. As different as the hands in the conference Logo, each presentation will vary based on their individual interests to convey the greatest diversity. To participate in this session a graduate student must be currently registered at a University. Larry Loendorf, PhD. will be the discussant and review and comment on the presentations.

            Interested students should submit an abstract, their student status, and associated University.

10

Mimbres

Marc Thompson
Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, UNM, marchaeologyx@gmail.com

Kelley Hays-Gilpin
Department of Anthropology, NAU
Kelley.Hays-Gilpin@nau.edu

Mimbres painted pottery is acknowledged as a distinct Southwestern ceramic type with accepted chronological and geographical boundaries. This session attempts to delineate these and similar parameters, including stylistic, ethnic, and ideological criteria, suggesting that Mimbres rock art was also a discrete phenomenon. Although Mimbres petroglyphs shared elements, icons, and motifs with neighboring cultures, such as the Hohokam to the west, Jornada Mogollon to the east, Casas Grandes to the south, and Anasazi to the north, Mimbres rock art, like Mimbres pottery, can be recognized and separated based on stylistic attributes and execution. Comparison and contrast of imagery from distinct cultures allows us to place Mimbres rock art on a temporal and geographic grid. Additionally, the occurrence of mortar holes, scrub oak, mesquite, and rock shelters with Mimbres petroglyphs indicates a complex patterning of ritual and economic activities took place at these sites beginning in the Late Archaic period. Finally, it may be possible to question some assumptions concerning who created the petroglyphs and for that matter who painted the pottery. The co-occurrence of mortar holes with petroglyphs may indicate that women, rather than men, created petroglyphs.

11

Context of Rock Art

Steven J. Waller
Rock Art Acoustics
wallersj@yahoo.com

Why here and not there? Although the visual content of rock art has long been the main focus of rock art research, only relatively recently has the environment of rock art sites garnered much attention. The locations selected by the artists are often perplexing: deep in certain cave chambers or concentrated in a spot high on a cliff face. Equally baffling are seemingly ideal rock canvases left blank. This session seeks a greater understanding of the motivation for rock art via study of its placement and arrangement in space relative to the characteristics of its environment. As an example: archaeoacoustic studies have shown a statistically significant correlation between rock art site placement and sound reflection levels; the cultural significance of this is underscored by ethnographically recorded myths in which echoes are attributed to spirits, and prediction by echolocation has led to previously unknown rock art. Yet rock art iconography is often presented and analyzed completely out of context. Papers for this session on rock art context are sought in the areas of landscape studies, phenomenology (including acoustics), orientation, forensics, geo-cultural spatial distribution, etc. An anticipated outcome of this session is a synthesis of rock art site selection criteria, and even a better definition for what constitutes a rock art "site". A better understanding of aspects of rock art contexts that were important factors for rock art site selection will help guide conservation efforts to preserve those environmental characteristics that were meaningful to the ancient artists, as well as synergize to serve as better predictive tools for discovering new rock art sites. Papers addressing the topic of phenomenological aspects of rock art sites would fit in well with this session.

12

Rock Art of the Jornada Mogollon

Myles Miller

Geo-Marine, Inc

epmyles@aol.com

 

Lawrence Loendorf

Sacred Sites Research, Inc

LLL@Loendorf.net

The Jornada Mogollon region of southern New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas has long been noted for its outstanding and significant rock art. Several of the more outstanding collections of prehistoric rock art in the American Southwest are found at Hueco Tanks, Three Rivers, Alamo Canyon/Wilkey Ranch, and Picture Cave. These and other Jornada rock art sites were among the earliest archaeological investigations in the southern Southwest, drawing researchers from Texas, New Mexico, and elsewhere to view and contemplate the origins of the images.

 

In subsequent years, the rock art has played a significant role in the study of prehistoric and historic Native American ideology, cosmology, and artistic expression through symbolic metaphor. The prehistoric rock art of the Jornada region has figured prominently in discussions of the origins of Southwestern ideology, its iconographic expression through rock art, ceramic designs and kiva murals, and possible relationships to Mesoamerica.  The images of masks and other icons such as cloud terraces common at Jornada rock art sites have contributed to debates over the origins of the Southwestern katsina cult. Jornada rock art continues both to inspire discussions and to serve as an essential source for debates over the origins and meanings of the symbolic imagery and iconography of Southwester pueblo societies.  

 

Papers in this session will focus on recent studies at rock art sites on Fort Bliss and elsewhere in the Jornada region. Recent dates for portable art objects associated with the rock art will presented with data on the distribution and time depth of Jornada Mogollon images. 

13

21st Century Discoveries and Research of Chinese Rock Art

Zhang Yasha, Professor

Rock Art Research Association of China (RARAC)

Minzu University of China

Beijing, P.R.C

yashazhang@sohu.com; chinarockart@163.com

 

Tang Huisheng, Professor

Dept. of Archaeology and Museology

School of Society Development

Nanjing Normal University

Jiangsu Province, P.R.C

tanghuisheng@163.com

net

During 2000~2012, a new era of Chinese rock art has been carved out succeeding the golden age of discovering rock art in 1980s, resulted from a boom of diffuse discoveries over the entire country. The new discoveries, especially made in the third national survey of cultural relics (2007~2010), included enormous numbers of hand stencils around western Yangtze River, a barely rendered style of primitive animals in Jinsha River within Yunnan Province, two-third of rock art in Xinjiang that has been found in this period, and the initial discovery of cupules in the Central Plain, etc., based on which Chinese scholars have been striving for further achievements in rock art research concerning its age, image features, symbolic system, surrounding environment, as well as all the other relevant aspects.

 

14

Ceramics and Rock Art: Relationships, Connections, and Confluences

Edithe Pereira

Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi

edithepereira@museu-goeldi.br

 

Martín Gamboa

Universidad de la República, Uruguay

martingamboa10@gmail.com

 

Leslie Walker

University of Arkansas

lcwalke@uark.edu

Relationships and links between rock art and ceramic remains have been traditionally handled autonomously in rock art studies. Sometimes archaeologists have used the ceramic material found on sites either as a chronological indicator (dating) or a vehicle for the reconstruction of subsistence patterns of the cultural group (emerging farmers, horticultures, etc.). Today this kind of analysis is changing through the integration of new dimensions of ceramic material related to rock paintings and engravings. As a result, aspects such as stylistic patterns, motifs, colors and pigments are incorporated into the analysis for determining the links between material culture and rock art. Current approaches that include these dimensions of ceramic material in rock art studies are beginning to deconstruct historical dualism in research of rock art, the disconnect between rock art and portable art. This session aims to reestablish relationships and confluences of ceramic material and rock art. Investigations completed, ongoing, or emerging studies from around the world are welcome.

 

Las relaciones y vínculos entre el arte rupestre y los vestigios cerámicos han sido tradicionalmente abordados en forma autónoma en los estudios de arte rupestre. En algunas ocasiones se ha utilizado el material cerámico hallado en los sitios como indicador cronológico (datación), o como medio para la reconstrucción de los patrones de subsistencia del grupo cultural (agricultores incipientes, agricultores-horticultores, etc.). Actualmente esta perspectiva de análisis está cambiando a través de la integración de nuevas dimensiones del material cerámico vinculados a las pinturas y grabados rupestres. En ese sentido, aspectos tales como padrones estilísticos, motivos, colores y pigmentos son incorporados al análisis para la determinación de los nexos que existen entre la cultura material y el arte rupestre. Los enfoques actuales que incluyen estas dimensiones del material cerámico en los estudios de arte rupestre comienzan a deconstruir un dualismo histórico en la investigación y análisis del arte rupestre: la desconexión entre el arte rupestre y el arte mobiliar. Esta Sesión pretende reestablecer las relaciones y confluencias del material cerámico y el arte rupestre. Investigaciones concluidas, en marcha o estudios incipientes de todas partes del mundo son bienvenidos.

15

Recent Rock Art Research in the Eastern United States

Sponsored by the Eastern States Rock Art Research Association

Carol Diaz-Granados
cdiaz-granados@wustl.edu

 

Jan Simek
jsimek@utk.edu

Rock Art sites in the Eastern United States are being discovered at an increasing rate. Sites are turning up in states thought to be void of any petroglyphs or pictographs. Much more rock art occurs in the western United States where the climate is conducive to preservation. In addition, major regions of the eastern states are covered with a thick forest growth, making the discovery of new sites difficult. It is only with the recent increased interest by the public, avocational archaeologists, and a number of grad students, that more substantive research is finally taking place. Several major books and numerous journal articles have been published in the last decade. Along with traditional site documentation, hi-tech analyses (X-ray fluorescence, AMS dating, etc.) are also being carried out. This session includes nine papers that discuss sites and research in Arkansas (the eastern Ozarks), Georgia, Illinois, Missouri (the Mississippi River Valley), North Carolina, and Tennessee (The Cumberland Plateau).

 

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